photosynthetic efficiency and crop productivity

Udgivet den:11 januar 2021
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"Like a factory line, plants are only as fast as their slowest machines," said Patricia Lopez-Calcagno, a postdoctoral researcher at Essex, who led this work for the RIPE project. This review attempts to develop a mechanistic understanding of the effects of N on crop biomass accumulation by elucidating quantitative relationships among leaf N content, CO 2 assimilation rate, and crop radiation use efficiency. Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) is a translational research project that is genetically engineering plants to photosynthesize more efficiently to increase crop yields. Tobacco leaves showing transient overexpression of genes involved in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), a system that protects plants from light damage. At the same time, the team has improved a photosynthetic bottleneck in the Calvin-Benson Cycle -- wherein carbon dioxide is fixed into sugars -- by bulking up the amount of a key enzyme called SBPase, borrowing the additional cellular machinery from another plant species and cyanobacteria. These two improvements, when combined, have been shown to increase crop productivity by 52 percent in the greenhouse. Plants contain the green pigment chlorophyll and they require light energy from the sun to photosynthesize and to grow. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. "Our modeling suggests that stacking this breakthrough with two previous discoveries from the RIPE project could result in additive yield gains totaling as much as 50 to 60 percent in food crops.". Here’s to a 2021 where CHC eventually won’t have to exist because…, a new method to rapidly test gene expression. Scientists engineered plants with a photosynthesis “shortcut” to increase crop production by up to 40%, according to a research article published in Science journal. Photo contest deadline tonight! Submit photos for our photo contest at https://t.co/NsU070FXst for a chance to win college swag! By increasing the expression of those genes, the scientists saw increases of 14-20 percent in the productivity of modified tobacco plants in field experiments. A team of scientists from the University of Essex has boosted crop productivity by 27 percent by resolving two bottlenecks in photosynthesis–the process whereby plants fix carbon dioxide into the sugars that fuel crop growth. “The molecular processes we’re modifying are fundamental to plants that carry out photosynthesis, so we hope to see a similar increase in yield in other crops.”. "Photosynthetic hacks can boost crop yield, conserve water." Photosynthetic efficiency is a component of plant productivity. They discovered that producing more of a protein that controls the rate in which electrons flow during photosynthesis, accelerates the whole process. 1. European Scientist: Scientists increase crop production by 47%. The EC-funded project GAIN4CROPS is developing novel disruptive technologies to overcome one of the main constraints on photosynthetic efficiency: photorespiration, a process that reduces CO2 assimilation efficiency, and thus biomass yield and agricultural productivity. This, in turn, can be achieved by altering the ratio of the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a and b. The highly variable levels of light plants receive, particularly in densely planted crop fields, presents a challenge to the efficient use of solar energy. Plastocyanin requires copper and cytochrome requires iron to function. Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases. Red and yellow regions represent low NPQ activity, while blue and purple areas show high levels induced by exposure to light. Niyogi compared NPQ to a pressure relief valve in a steam engine. Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This international research project is sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the U.S. Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR), and the U.K. Government's Department for International Development (DFID). Applicability of the TLA concept was previously shown in green microalgae and cyanobacteria, but it has not yet been demonstrated in crop plants. The photosynthetic efficiency in most crops is less than 2% and even a small increase in this has potential to improve biomass and yield. Scientists have found how to relieve a bottleneck in the process by which plants transform sunlight into food, which may lead to an increase in crop production. The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in green plants and algae. Photosynthesis is the basis of primary productivity on the planet. Whereas improved photosynthetic efficiency has played only a minor role in the remarkable increases in productivity achieved in the last half century, further increases in yield potential will rely in large part on improved photosynthesis. The maximum yield attainable from a crop has been termed yield For 50 years scientists have striven to boost the activity of Rubisco, a promising target to increase crop production, as it controls how much and how fast plants fix carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into sugars and energy during photosynthesis. Introduction. Plant biologists have bumped up crop productivity by increasing the expression of genes that result in more efficient use of light in photosynthesis, a finding that could be used to help address the world’s future food needs. The project's second breakthrough, also published in Science, created a shortcut in how plants deal with a glitch in photosynthesis to boost productivity by 20 to 40 percent. Because C 2 plants suffer less net carbon loss from photorespiration, engineering C 2 photosynthesis into C 3 crops could therefore have a large impact on crop production. NPQ turns off, but not quickly enough. Any new technology licensed from this work will be made freely available to farmers in poor countries in Africa and South Asia. Whether this greater photosynthetic efficiency during shading events would affect productivity was evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block … Niyogi and his postdoctoral research associates Lauriebeth Leonelli, Stéphane Gabilly, and Masakazu Iwai figured out a way to speed up recovery from photoprotection and demonstrated a proof of this concept in the laboratory. The team found crop yield changes ranged from a reduction of one per cent to a 12 per cent increase, depending on the combination of photosynthetic targets, the crop … The researchers described their findings in a paper published today in the journal Science. 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Photosynthesis is directly related to plant growth and crop production and any fluctuation in the photosynthetic activity imposes great threat to crop productivity. A team of scientists from the University of Essex has boosted crop productivity by 27 percent by resolving two bottlenecks in photosynthesis--the process whereby plants fix … Introduction Plants greatly … An international effort called Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) aims to transform crops' ability to turn sunlight and carbon dioxide into higher yields. This research was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (Credit: Lauriebeth Leonelli and Matthew Brooks/UC Berkeley). Congratulations to Mary Blackburn on winning the National Extension Association of Family and Consumer Sciences Hal… https://t.co/4XBCXsQvEX, Since its founding in 1915, Forestry Camp has been canceled only twice, during both World Wars. Its efficiency is considered a key determinant of crop productivity. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there is strong evidence that increasing photosynthesis will increase crop yields provided that other constraints do … The flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Hanson and her lab are producing vectors that will install a novel cyanobacterial-based, carbon-concentrating mechanism into a chloroplast, and they are providing the necessary molecular machinery to facilitate its operation. “We discovered 20 years ago that red algae can produce more efficient versions of Rubisco than . It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. They used a new method to rapidly test gene expression in tobacco leaves. Flag leaves could help top off photosynthetic performance in rice. Plant biologists have bumped up crop productivity by increasing the expression of genes that result in more efficient use of light in photosynthesis, a finding that could be used to help address the world’s future food needs. Half of crop photosynthesis occurs in the shade, so any improvement in speeding up recovery from photoprotection could have a big benefit, the researchers said. Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) aims to improve photosynthesis to equip farmers worldwide with higher-yielding crops to ensure everyone has enough food to lead a … In rice plants, the flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Nature Plants. Photosynthesis is an important biochemical reaction that forms the basis of all food chains. The photosynthetic engine can’t work as efficiently.”. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is paving the way to increase crop production efficiency with electric lamps. In photosynthesis, plants use the energy in sunlight to take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into biomass, which we use for food, fuel, and fiber. In higher plants, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the fraction of sunlight with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm is harvested by the photosynthetic pigments of photosystems PSI and PSII. Photosynthetic efficiency and biomass productivity in rice largely decreased at cool temperatures (Nagai and Makino, 2009), and rice yield in northern regions of Japan is limited by low biomass accumulation in cool climates between spring and early summer. Patricia E. López-Calcagno, Kenny L. Brown, Andrew J. Simkin, Stuart J. Fisk, Silvere Vialet-Chabrand, Tracy Lawson, and Christine A. Raines. These findings represent a breakthrough in bioengineering plants to achieve efficient photosynthesis and increase crop productivity under normal and heat-stress conditions. Photosynthesis and crop yield Photosynthesis is the primary determinant of crop yield, and the efficiency by which a crop captures light and converts it into biomass over the growing season is a key determinant of final yield, be that biomass or grain (Long et al., 2006). These two improvements, when combined, have been shown to increase crop productivity by 52 percent in the greenhouse. A number of plant features and traits, such as overall plant architecture, leaf structure and morphological features, vascular architecture and flowering time are important determinants of photosynthetic efficiency and hence the overall performance of crop plants. To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C 4 pathway into C 3 rice (Oryza sativa). Modern Farmer: Scientists may found a way to increase crop yield by a bonkers 20% Smithsonian Magazine: New technique could supercharge crop production Popular Science: Scientists tweak plant genes to enhance photosynthesis and increase crop yields Peoria Public Radio (WCBU 89.9): Genetically Modifying Photosynthesis Can … When there is too much sunlight, the photosynthetic machinery in chloroplasts can be damaged, so plants need photoprotection. ANRV410-PP61-11 ARI 8 April 2010 0:47 Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield Xin-Guang Zhu,1,2,3 Stephen P. Long,3,4 and Donald R. Ort3,4,5 1CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, SIBS, Shanghai, China 200031 2Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, SIBS, Shanghai, China 200032 3Institute of Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, … Due to the environmental fluctuations plants are often exposed to the different environmental stresses that cause decreased photosynthetic rate and problems in the plant growth and development. The team at Dr Sayre’s lab has also produced several studies that suggest that capturing CO 2 by algae Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily, its staff, its contributors, or its partners. RIPE's first discovery, published in Science, helped plants adapt to changing light conditions to increase yields by as much as 20 percent. By adding "cellular forklifts" to shuttle electrons into the photosystems and "cellular machinery" for the Calvin Cycle, the team also improved the crop's water-use efficiency, or the ratio of biomass produced to water lost by the plant. The C 4 photosynthetic pathway is a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism that generally enables C 4 plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C 3 plants. A transport protein called plastocyanin moves electrons into the photosystem to fuel this process. Financial support for ScienceDaily comes from advertisements and referral programs, where indicated. The work to boost crop productivity comes as concerns about food shortages rise with the world’s population. Keywords: Photosynthesis efficiency, abiotic stress, biotic stress, climate change, Multiple Stress Conditions, Crop productivity Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they … Photosynthesis in this leaf provides the majority of The flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Multiple targets have been identified that could be manipulated to increase crop photosynthesis. ... which would result in higher crop productivity. Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency is a translational research project that is genetically engineering plants to photosynthesize more efficiently to increase crop yields. This is the third breakthrough for the research project Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE); however, this photosynthetic hack has also been shown to conserve water. The RIPE project is an international effort led by the University of Illinois to develop more productive crops by improving photosynthesis -- the natural, sunlight-powered process that all plants use to fix carbon dioxide into sugars that fuel growth, development, and ultimately yield. “Tobacco was used as the model crop plant in this study because it is easy to work with, but we’re working to make the same modifications in rice and other food crops,” said co-senior author Krishna Niyogi, a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology. The team addressed this first bottleneck by helping plastocyanin share the load with the addition of cytochrome c6 -- a more efficient transport protein that has a similar function in algae. In the shade, the pressure in the engine decreases. "It is a powerful tool to assess and guide photosynthetic manipulations and unravel effects that confound the relationship between photosynthetic efficiency and crop performance, "he said. 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